Mandate and DDR provision in CPA
The current mandate was outlined in Security Council Resolution 1609 of June 24, 2005:
In the area of DDR, the mandate emphasizes support and assistance to the Government of National Reconciliation in carrying out the following DDR related activities in the realm of a “coordinated regional approach”:
•“regouping of all the Ivorian forces involved and to assist in ensuring the security of their disarmament, cantonment and demobilization sites.”
• “implementation of the national programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of combatants” while taking into consideration specific needs of women and children. Additionally, implementation of the “Joint Operational Plan for the disarmament and dismantling of militias envisaged in article 4 of the Pretoria Agreement.”
• Coordination with the Sierra Leone and Liberia missions on the implementation of a “voluntary repatriation and resettlement programme for foreign ex-combatants, paying special attention to the specific needs of women and children” while considering efforts and inputs of other governments, donors, international financial institutions and international development organizations.
• “secure, neutralize or destroy any weapons, ammunition or any other military material surrendered by the former combatants.”
President Laurent Gbagbo remains head of state after the old mandate expires on October 17, 2005. Specifically, the African Union (AU) Plan calls for him to not stay in office any longer than 12 months.
Aim and Objectives, Eligibility and criteria / Timeline of DDR processes
During the Yamoussoukro seminar that was held from 2nd to 6th May 2005, the ex-belligerent forces (FDS and FAFN) agreed that a total of 48,064 beneficiaries comprising 5,500 combatants from FDS and 42,564 ex-combatants from FAFN would benefit from the DDR programme. Women and/or girls associated with armed groups or forces and vulnerable groups (widow, disable and orphans) have also been included among these beneficiaries. According to the PNDDR programme, demobilized combatants will be entitled to a safety net package of 499,500 F CFA Francs for six months. This safety net package will be distributed to demobilized combatants upon presentation of their demobilization ID card at the regional office. The safety net package will be disbursed in the following sequence:
•25% paid upon demobilization
• 25% paid 45 days later
• 50% remainder paid 90 days after demobilization
Ex-combatants will be oriented to the city or village district of origin or a locality where they will eventually choose to live. At the district office, ex-combatants will receive advice on available reintegration opportunities such as: education grant, vocational training, job placement, and income generating activities or micro-finance projects. An education grant of 200,000F CFA (maximum) will be allocated to ex-combatants that will opt to resume their studies. Tools kit will be given to ex-combatants that will chose vocational training at the end of the programme. Ex-combatants that will opt for micro-credit finance project will be entitled to a loan of 180,000 F CFA per individual plus a loan of 150,000 F CFA for the purchase of equipment. They will also be qualified for a loan of 100,000 F CFA for agricultural projects and for the purchase of seeds.
The ex belligerents have identified 11 DDR Zones across the territory of Côte D’Ivoire. In the northern part of the country (controlled by the Force Nouvelles) there are 5 DDR zones: Bouake, Bouna, Korhogo, Man and Seguela. In the southern part of the country (controlled by the FDS) there are six DDR zones: Abidjan, Guiglo, Daloa, Yamoussoukro, Bondoukou and San Pedro. ONUCI has already allocated some containers for all DDR sites to store and secure ammunitions and arms that will be collected during the disarmament process. Most of these zones have undergone extensive rehabilitation works. The Chiefs of Staff of the FDS and FAFN have agreed on a number and localities for the establishment pre-cantonment sites. There are 75 pre-cantonment sites in the FAFN controlled area, located in the northern part of the country, and there are 35 pre-cantonment sites located in the FDS controlled are, located in the southern part of the country. Members of the armed forces from the belligerent parties are to be assembled in the pre cantonment sites prior to the commencement of the official DDR programme. These sites are technically operational and will be manned by the ex-belligerent forces as per a formal agreement between their respective chiefs of staff.
Once the DDR programme starts the participants are to move into 17 cantonment sites (nine in the FAFN controlled areas and eight in the FDS controlled areas). Here the weapons will be secured so as to allow the combatants to participate in the identification process (in which those deemed eligible will be issued with Côte d’Ivoire identity papers) and the voter registration process, which will take place concomitantly with the DDR programme. In order to allow the combatants to travel they would receive a first installment of the transitional safety net allowance once their weapons have been secured.
Upon completion of the identification process the combatant would return to the cantonment site for formal demobilization and to participate in reorientation programmes before returning to their respective region of origin where they would enter socio-economic reintegration programmes.
Approach to special groups (children, women, disabled and foreign combatants)
UNDP has secured funds to support the reintegration of women and girls in order to offer them the same economic opportunities as men and boys once they have departed from the cantonment site. ONUCI has also put in place an array of Quick Impact Projects (QIPs) to facilitate the reintegration of ex-combatants. Children associated with armed group or forces have a separate DDR programme. They will transit through an orientation and transit center under the management of UNICEF. Children are not entitled to the safety net package.