Country Overview
Cote d'Ivoire

Background

Situation Analysis

Alassane Ouattara was declared winner of the November 2010 UN-certified presidential election, which, it was hoped, would advance the peace process in Côte d’Ivoire. Instead, the country lurched back into civil war when incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo refused to step down, using troops, paramilitaries and mercenaries to entrench his position and crush dissent. The five-month impasse ended with the arrest of Mr. Gbagbo and the inauguration of the legitimate President on 21 May 2011.

 Following the 2010 Presidential election and the ensuing political crisis in Côte d'Ivoire, UNOCI has remained on the ground to support the new Ivorian Government.When Mr. Gbagbo was apprehended on 11 April 2011 by the Forces Republicaines de Côte d’Ivoire (FRCI; comprised of former FN and pro-Ouattara armed groups), many security force commanders loyal to him surrendered to the Government and pledged allegiance to President Ouattara.

 A significant number of Gbagbo’s Republican Guard soldiers melted into the population along with their weapons, including heavy weapons, while militia elements, mercenaries and other pro-Gbagbo elements fled to western Côte d’Ivoire or crossed the border to hide among refugees in Liberia. Many of these elements continue to pose a threat to the security along the Côte d’Ivoire-Liberia border as a result.

Strategy and Approach

Mandate and DDR provision in CPA

The current mandate was outlined in Security Council Resolution 1609 of June 24, 2005:

In the area of DDR, the mandate emphasizes support and assistance to the Government of National Reconciliation in carrying out the following DDR related activities in the realm of a “coordinated regional approach”:

•“regouping of all the Ivorian forces involved and to assist in ensuring the security of their disarmament, cantonment and demobilization sites.”

• “implementation of the national programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of combatants” while taking into consideration specific needs of women and children. Additionally, implementation of the “Joint Operational Plan for the disarmament and dismantling of militias envisaged in article 4 of the Pretoria Agreement.”
• Coordination with the Sierra Leone and Liberia missions on the implementation of a “voluntary repatriation and resettlement programme for foreign ex-combatants, paying special attention to the specific needs of women and children” while considering efforts and inputs of other governments, donors, international financial institutions and international development organizations.
• “secure, neutralize or destroy any weapons, ammunition or any other military material surrendered by the former combatants.”

President Laurent Gbagbo remains head of state after the old mandate expires on October 17, 2005. Specifically, the African Union (AU) Plan calls for him to not stay in office any longer than 12 months.

Aim and Objectives, Eligibility and criteria / Timeline of DDR processes

During the Yamoussoukro seminar that was held from 2nd to 6th May 2005, the ex-belligerent forces (FDS and FAFN) agreed that a total of 48,064 beneficiaries comprising 5,500 combatants from FDS and 42,564 ex-combatants from FAFN would benefit from the DDR programme. Women and/or girls associated with armed groups or forces and vulnerable groups (widow, disable and orphans) have also been included among these beneficiaries. According to the PNDDR programme, demobilized combatants will be entitled to a safety net package of 499,500 F CFA Francs for six months. This safety net package will be distributed to demobilized combatants upon presentation of their demobilization ID card at the regional office. The safety net package will be disbursed in the following sequence:

•25% paid upon demobilization
• 25% paid 45 days later
• 50% remainder paid 90 days after demobilization

Ex-combatants will be oriented to the city or village district of origin or a locality where they will eventually choose to live. At the district office, ex-combatants will receive advice on available reintegration opportunities such as: education grant, vocational training, job placement, and income generating activities or micro-finance projects. An education grant of 200,000F CFA (maximum) will be allocated to ex-combatants that will opt to resume their studies. Tools kit will be given to ex-combatants that will chose vocational training at the end of the programme. Ex-combatants that will opt for micro-credit finance project will be entitled to a loan of 180,000 F CFA per individual plus a loan of 150,000 F CFA for the purchase of equipment. They will also be qualified for a loan of 100,000 F CFA for agricultural projects and for the purchase of seeds.

DDR Zones

The ex belligerents have identified 11 DDR Zones across the territory of Côte D’Ivoire. In the northern part of the country (controlled by the Force Nouvelles) there are 5 DDR zones: Bouake, Bouna, Korhogo, Man and Seguela. In the southern part of the country (controlled by the FDS) there are six DDR zones: Abidjan, Guiglo, Daloa, Yamoussoukro, Bondoukou and San Pedro. ONUCI has already allocated some containers for all DDR sites to store and secure ammunitions and arms that will be collected during the disarmament process. Most of these zones have undergone extensive rehabilitation works. The Chiefs of Staff of the FDS and FAFN have agreed on a number and localities for the establishment pre-cantonment sites. There are 75 pre-cantonment sites in the FAFN controlled area, located in the northern part of the country, and there are 35 pre-cantonment sites located in the FDS controlled are, located in the southern part of the country. Members of the armed forces from the belligerent parties are to be assembled in the pre cantonment sites prior to the commencement of the official DDR programme. These sites are technically operational and will be manned by the ex-belligerent forces as per a formal agreement between their respective chiefs of staff.

Once the DDR programme starts the participants are to move into 17 cantonment sites (nine in the FAFN controlled areas and eight in the FDS controlled areas). Here the weapons will be secured so as to allow the combatants to participate in the identification process (in which those deemed eligible will be issued with Côte d’Ivoire identity papers) and the voter registration process, which will take place concomitantly with the DDR programme. In order to allow the combatants to travel they would receive a first installment of the transitional safety net allowance once their weapons have been secured.

Upon completion of the identification process the combatant would return to the cantonment site for formal demobilization and to participate in reorientation programmes before returning to their respective region of origin where they would enter socio-economic reintegration programmes.

Approach to special groups (children, women, disabled and foreign combatants)

UNDP has secured funds to support the reintegration of women and girls in order to offer them the same economic opportunities as men and boys once they have departed from the cantonment site. ONUCI has also put in place an array of Quick Impact Projects (QIPs) to facilitate the reintegration of ex-combatants. Children associated with armed group or forces have a separate DDR programme. They will transit through an orientation and transit center under the management of UNICEF. Children are not entitled to the safety net package.

Operational Struct. & Framework

Implementation Mechanism

DDR units will assist in the implementation of a national DDR program, targeting combatants and paying special attention to women and children. Additionally, they will work in coordination with the Government of Côte d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone and Liberia in the implementation of a voluntary repatriation and resettlement programme for foreign ex-combatants. The programme mandate calls for coordination between regional groups in the effort to secure, neutralize or destroy weapons and ammunition.

Institutional Structure
The UN DDR units, under the auspices of UNOCI, are assisted in the post conflict environment by ECOWAS, the African Union, and the State through the Government of National Reconciliation and the Election Commission.

Area of Activity

Disarmament and Demobilization

•To assist the Government of National Reconciliation in undertaking the regrouping of all the Ivorian forces involved and to assist in ensuring the security of their disarmament, cantonment and demobilization sites.
• To support the Government of National Reconciliation in the implementation of the national programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of combatants, paying special attention to the specific needs of women and children.
• To coordinate closely with the United Nations missions in Sierra Leone and in Liberia in the implementation of a voluntary repatriation and resettlement programme for foreign ex-combatants, paying special attention to the specific needs of women and children, in support of the efforts of the Government of National Reconciliation and in cooperation with the Governments concerned, relevant international financial institutions, international development organizations and donor nations.

Disarmament and dismantling of militias

•To assist the Prime Minister of the Government of National Reconciliation in formulating and monitoring the implementation of the Joint Operation Plan for the disarmament and dismantling of militias envisaged in article 4 of the Pretoria Agreement.
• To secure, neutralize or destroy all weapons, ammunition and other military materiel surrendered.

Funding/Partners

National: The Government of National Reconciliation is expected to contribute about 25% of the funding for the national programme. Plans envisage that the future caseload will be processed over a period of two years at abn estimated budget of USD 2,300  per combatant.

 UPDATE International Agenciesl: The World Bank is considering the provision of an $80 million grant and modalities and conditionality for the disbursement of the grant are currently in the process of being negotiated between the Ivorian Government and the World Bank.

 UPDATE Multilateral/Bilateral Partners: The approved multilateral and bilateral contributions to the DDR process, amount to 16 182 064 .67 USD. The total for all the DDR related projects is 22 482 064.57 USD. The multilateral and bilateral donors are the following: UNDP, UNICEF, France, EU, Japan, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden and Japan.

Current Challenges and Updates

The post-election crisis in Cote d’Ivoire expanded the magnitude of the DDR challenge to stabilize the security environment in the country:

  • Lack of reintegration plans and further opportunities for beneficiaries after disarmament, demobilisation and reinsertion to access long-term reintegration programs.

  • In addition, an influx of weapons was introduced into the general population and remains in circulation. The Ivorian Government has yet to define a clear policy with regard to its priorities on security issues in general, and on DDR in particular.

Work on reintegration opportunities to be provided to ex-combatants should also begin without delay, so as to ensure that there would be no gap between disarmament and reintegration programmes.

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